抜粋:Wierzbicka (1991):認識的 must vs. will の相違

ヴェジビツカ」だったり「ヴィエルジュビツカ」だったりする Wierzbicka せんせいの20年前の本から認識様相と発語内効力に関する箇所を抜き書き:

Anna Wierzbicka, Cross-cultural pragmatics: the semantics of human interaction. Berlin/New York : Mouton de Gruyter, 1991.

まず認識的な will について (p.236):

The combination of the modal /will/ with the adverb /now/ shows clearly that in this sentence /will/ does not indicate future tense. What it does indicate, in this particular sentence, is that the speaker is inviting the addressee to make an estimate. Most generally, it indicates a thinking process, leading a person from not being able to say the right thing about something to being able to do so, with some confidence:
この文では,法助動詞 will と副詞 now が組み合わさっていることから,これは未来時制を標示していない.なにを標示しているかと言えば,とくにこの文の場合には聞き手に推測をさせようという話し手の誘いかけだ.もっと一般的には,これは思考のプロセスを標示する.あることについて正しいことを言えない状態から,ある程度の自信を持ってそれが言える状態に至るまでの思考のプロセスだ.

Johnny: Where's it from?
Larry (after a glance): St. Paul. That'll be in Minnesota, I'm thinkin'. (AC)

Quite clearly, the speaker is not informing the addressee that St. Paul is in Minnesota, and he is not exactly inferring it either. There is no performative verb in English which would capture exactly the illocutionary force of such sentences. Nontheless, its force can be clearly stated:

  • /X will be P/
    • I don't say I know this [X is P] (私は「X は P である」と知っているとは言わない)
    • I think I'll know it if I think about it (考えればわかると私は思う)
    • I want to think about it (私はこれについて考えたい)
    • I think I know it now (いま,それがわかったと思う)
    • I say: [      ] (私はいう:[ ])

A question such as /How old'll she be now?/ invites an answer based on current thinking effort:
How old'll she be now?(彼女何歳だろうね?)のような疑問文は,いま現在の思考の努力にもとづいた答えを引き出そうとする:

I think you will know it if you think about it 考えれば,あなたにはそれがわかると私は思う.
I want you to think about it 私はあなたにそれについて考えてほしい.

The explication has temporal order built into it, referring as it does to a passage of time. It shows that the modal /will/ is related to the future /will/, and that in fact the meaning of the latter is contained in the meaning of the former. (Consequently, the explication is not circular, as it reduces the modal /will/ to the temporal /will/. It is not my purpose to explicate the latter in the present context.)
この記述には,時間の順序が組み込まれている.述べてある順序は時間の流れにしたがっている.ここから,様相的な will は未来の will と関連していることがわかるし,それどころか,後者の意味は前者の意味に含まれていることがわかる.(その帰結として,この記述は循環していない.様相的な will は時間的な will に還元されているからだ.いまの文脈では,この後者を明らかにすることは筆者の目的ではない.)

※「未来指示の will の意味が認識様相の will に含まれている」という点に注目.

さらに,認識的な must との対比 (pp.237-8):

As for the modal /must/ (/She must be at least forty/), it indicates a similar, but not identical illocutionary force. It is less speculative, and it doesn't refer to time spent in thinking. Looking at the portrait of an unknown woman, one would say:
法助動詞の must(She must be at least forty「彼女は少なくとも40歳だね」)について述べよう.これが示す発語内効力も〔認識的な willと〕似ているが,同一でない.こちらの方があまり思弁的でなく,また,思考に費やされる時間にも言及しない.たとえば,見知らぬ女性の肖像をみて,こんな風に発言したとしよう:

  • /She must be very beautiful./ (彼女はきっとすごい美人だね)
  • /?She will be very beautiful./ (彼女はすごい美人だろうね)

Since in this particular situation the judgment is clearly based on what one can see (the portrait), not on a process of thinking, /will/ is inappropriate. Of course the sentence is fine if /will/ is interpreted in the future sense 'she will be beautiful in the future', but not if it is interpreted in the modal sense 'she will be beautiful now'.
この具体的な場面では,判断の根拠は明らかにじぶんがみているもの(肖像)にあって,思考のプロセスにはない.このため,will は不適切となる.もちろん,will を未来の意義で解釈すれば(「彼女は将来美人になるだろう」)適切になるが,様相的な意義(「彼女はいま美人だろう」)で解釈するとおかしい.

The illocutionary force of /must/ sentences can be stated as follows:
must を含む分の発語内効力は次のように規定できる:

  • /X must be P/
    • I say: I think I can say this about X (私は言う:私は X についてこう言えると思う)
    • I don't say I know it (それを知っているとは私は言わない)
    • I think one must think this (こう考えねばならないと私は考える)
    • I say this because I want to say what I think (このように私が言うのは,じぶんの考えるところを言いたいからだ)

This is of course a much more tentative force than that of /I must say/ sentences. The modal /must/ in sentences of the /X must be P/ type is not derived from an underlying 'I must say' component. Rather, it is derived from 'I think one must think this'. In saying 'X must be P' the speaker stops short of asserting that X is P and the explication doesn't include a component of the form 'I say: X is P'. But an explication of the frame 'I must say: X is P' would have to include such a component.
もちろん,これは I must say の文よりもずっと暫定的な効力だ.X must be P タイプの文における様相的な must は基底にある 'I must say' 要素から派生しているわけではない.そうではなく,'I think one must think this'(こう考えねばならないと私は考える)から派生しているのだ.'X must be P' と言う際に,話し手は X is P(X は P である)と断定するのを思いとどまっている.このため,上記の分析には 'I say: X is P' という要素は含まれていない.しかし,'I must say: X is P' のフレームの分析には,そうした要素が含まれねばならないだろう.

For example, if the speaker is telling us a story about some unknown woman, we could respond by saying 'she must be very beautiful', but not by saying 'I must say, she is very beautiful' -- because the latter sentence would imply a personal assessment of the woman's beauty, which is impossible in the case of someone unknown. Compare also the following two sentences:
たとえば,話し手がある見知らぬ女性について語っているとしよう.このとき,〔聞き手の〕私たちは 'She must be very beautiful'(彼女はきっと美人にちがいないね)と合いの手を入れることはできるが,'I must say, she is very beautiful'(彼女は美人だと言わざるを得ないね)とは返せない――なぜなら,後者の文ではその女性の美しさの個人的な評価が含意されてしまうからだ.この個人的な評価は見知らぬ人物の場合には不可能だ.また,次の2つの例文を比べてみよう:

  • /This must be the milkman./
  • /?I must say, this is the milkman./

The first sentence expresses a rather confident guess and it is of course perfectly acceptable; but the second sentence is odd, because it suggests a personal judgment concerning a non-factual matter, whereas the proposition introduced in this frame is in fact factual. The personal judgment in question appears to be expressed reluctantly but without the slightest hesitation as to its validity. This can be portrayed as follows:

  • /I must say, she is very beautiful (?this is the milkman) (私はこう言わねばならない,彼女はとても美人だと(?これは牛乳屋だと).
  • I say: she is very beautiful (私は言う:彼女はとても美人だ)
  • I don't say it because I want to say it (こう言いたくてこう言うわけではない)
  • I must say it if I want to say what I think (じぶんの考えるところを言いたければ,こう言わなくてはならないのだ)
  • I say it because I want to say what I think (私がこう言うのは,じぶんの考えるところを言いたいからだ)

The non-factual character of the frame 'I must say' is accounted for by the combination of a confident assertion (I say: she is very beautiful) with an indication of a subjective basis of this assertion ('I say this because I want to say what I think') and by the absence of the disclaimer 'I don't say I know it'.
'I must say' フレームの事実に関わらないという特徴は,[1] 自信のある断定(I say: she is very beautiful)とこの断定が主観に基づいていることの表示('I say this because I want to say what I think')が組み合わさっていること,そして,[2] 'I don't say I know it' という但し書きがないことで説明される.