▼ #04: "What is Phonetics?" （音声学ってなんですか？）
■Question: What is phonetics?
■Mr. Bergs: Phonetics is the study of concrete sounds. So in contrast to phonology, it does not really care for individual language, or the meaning-distinguishing unit; it just look at what is there. It looks at how sounds are produced: that's "articulatory phonetics". So, What happens in your throat, your lungs, your tongues, or your lips, and so on. There's the second branch that is called "auditory phonetics", and this looks at what happens in your ear, when you listen to sounds, so How does the ear-drum function, for example. And the third section is the "acoustic phonetics". This looks at sound-waves, how sounds in physics are made and characterized. And phonetics is not language-specific, so you can go out there and listen to the sounds, and try to describe them, and you will see that there's almost infinite number of possible sounds out there in the world. And every language only use the small subsection of what's possible out there.
- articulatory phonetics : 調音音声学
- auditory phonetics : 聴覚音声学
- acoustic phonetics : 音響音声学
▼ #05: "What is Phonology?" （音韻論ってなんですか？）
■Question: What is phonology?
■Mr. Bergs: Phonology is the study of sound systems of a given language. So here you look at the sounds, for instance, that make a difference, the phonemes: the smallest meaning-distinguishing units of a language. These phonemes are small subsections of the possible sounds of human language. So English, for example, has something like thirty five or thirty seven different sounds that make a difference, eh, used as phonemes. This is what we call "segmental phonology": it looks at the segments that a given language uses. In these segments are the phonemes, and when you put them into use, there are "allophones". In contrast to that, we have the second section that's called "supra-segmental phonology". And the supra-segmental phonology looks at features which go beyond the single sounds, so it looks at syllables for instance, how sounds can be combined. English, for example, has very complex syllables with lots of consonants before the vowel, lots of consonants following the vowel. Other languages like Japanese for example only have consonants and a vowel following each other. So, an English word like "Christmas", which is quite complicated, turns into Japanese "ku-ri-su-ma-su", so you always have a CV sequence there. This is one aspect of supra-segmental phonology. Other things you can study there are intonation, for example, prosody, rhythm, pitch, loudness. So everything that happens beyond the single segment.
- phoneme : 音素
- allophone : 異音
- segment : 分節音
- supra-segmental : 超分節（的）